interest & motivation

Abeles, H. (2004). The effect of three orchestra/ school partnerships on students' interest in instrumental music instruction. Journal of Research in Music Education, 52(3), 248-263. doi: 10.2307/3345858

Adderley, C., Kennedy, M., & Berz, W. (2003). "A Home away from Home": The World of the High School Music Classroom. Journal of Research in Music Education, 51(3), 190-205. doi: 10.2307/3345373

Anderman, E. M., & Maehr, M. L. (1994). Motivation and schooling in the middle grades. Review of Educational Research, 64(2), 287-309. doi: 10.3102/00346543064002287

Anderman, L. H., & Anderman, E. M. (1999). Social predictors of changes in students' achievement goal orientations. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24(1), 21-37. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1998.0978

Anguiano, K. R. (2007). Motivational predictors of continuing motivation and achievement for early adolescent instrumental music students. PhD Dissertation, Graduate College, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. (AAT 3229641)

Asmus, E. P. (1986). Student Beliefs about the Causes of Success and Failure in Music: A Study of Achievement. Journal of Research in Music Education, 34(4), 262-278. doi: 10.2307/3345260

Austin, J. R. (1991). Competitive and non-competitive goal structures: An analysis of motivation and achievement among elementary band students. Psychology of Music, 19(2), 142-158. doi: 10.1177/0305735691192005

Austin, J. R., & Berg, M. H. (2006). Exploring music practice among sixth-grade band and orchestra students. Psychology of Music, 34(4), 535-558. doi: 10.1177/0305735606067170

Austin, J. R., Renwick, J. M., & McPherson, G. E. (2006). Developing motivation. In G. E. McPherson (Ed.), The child as musician : a handbook of musical development(pp. 213-238). Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Reprinted from: 2007, 2008).

Bakker, A. B. (2005). Flow among music teachers and their students: The crossover of peak experiences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(1), 26-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2003.11.001

Beiswenger, K. L., & Grolnick, W. S. (2009). Interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with autonomous motivation in adolescents' after-school activities. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 30(3), 369-394. doi: 10.1177/0272431609333298

Beltman, S., & Volet, S. (2007). Exploring the Complex and Dynamic Nature of Sustained Motivation. European Psychologist, 12(4), 314-323. doi: 10.1027/1016-9040.12.4.314

Boal-Palheiros, G. M., & Hargreaves, D. J. (2001). Listening to music at home and at school. British Journal of Music Education, 18(2), 103-118. doi: 10.1017/S0265051701000213

Boon, H. J. (2007). Low- and high-achieving Australian secondary school students: Their parenting, motivations and academic achievement. Australian Psychologist, 42(3), 212 - 225. doi: 10.1080/00050060701405584

Bowles, C. L. (1999). Teaching for adulthood. Transcending the child. General Music Today, 12(2), 15-16. doi: 10.1177/104837139901200205

Boyle, J. D., DeCarbo, N. J., & Jordan, D. M. (1994, February 8th, 2003). Middle/Junior High School Band Directors' Views Regarding Reasons For Student Dropouts in Instrumental Music. Retrieved September 28th, 2008, from

Campbell, P. S., Connell, C., & Beegle, A. (2007). Adolescents' Expressed Meanings of Music in and out of School. Journal of Research in Music Education, 55(3), 220-236. doi: 10.1177/002242940705500304

Carruthers, G. (2005). Universities' Role in Articulating Diverse Music-learner Populations. In D. L. Forrest (Ed.), Conference Proceedings: A Celebration of Voices; Australian Society for Music Education XV National Conference; Melbourne, Vic., Australia, July 3rd-7th(pp. 48-54). Parkville, Vic.: Australian Society for Music Education.

Chadwick, F. (2000). An Australian perspective on talent development in music: The influence of environmental catalysts upon the provision of opportunities for learning, training and practice in the musical domain.PhD Thesis, School of Education Studies, University of New South Wales, Sydney, N.S.W. Retrieved from UNSWorks database.

Chappell, G. J. (2005). The journeyman musician, the phoenix, and the spiritual musician : experiences of combining music with salaried employment.Master of Education Thesis, Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education (EPSE), College of Education, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. Retrieved from University of Saskatchewan Library Electronic Theses & Dissertations database.

Collins, A. (2014, March 13). Is it time to change our tune? Music Council of Australia: music forum journal. Retrieved May 2, 2014, from

Collins, M. A., & Amabile, T. M. (1999). Motivation and Creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity(pp. 297-312). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Coon, H., & Carey, G. (1989). Genetic and environmental determinants of musical ability in twins. Behavior Genetics, 19(2), 183-193. doi: 10.1007/BF01065903

Cope, P. (2002). Informal learning of musical instruments: The importance of social context. Music Education Research, 4(1), 93 - 104. doi: 10.1080/14613800220119796

Creech, A. (2010). Learning a musical instrument: The case for parental support. Music Education Research, 12(1), 13 - 32. doi: 10.1080/14613800903569237

Creech, A., & Hallam, S. (2011). Learning a musical instrument: The influence of interpersonal interaction on outcomes for school-aged pupils. Psychology of Music, 39(1), 102-122. doi: 10.1177/0305735610370222

De Francesco, L. (2009). An empirical study of children's musical experiences in Italy, South Africa and Bali, discussing the nature of the transmission of musical knowledge.PhD Thesis, School of English, Media & Performing Arts, University of New South Wales, Sydney, N.S.W. Retrieved from UNSWorks database.

de Vries, P. (2007). Informal music learning: Experiences of pre-service primary school teachers. In A. Stanberg, J. McIntosh & R. Faulkner (Eds.), Celebrating Musical Communities: Proceedings of the 40th Anniversary National Conference, Perth, WA, Australia, July 6th-8th (pp. 85-88). Nedlands, WA: Australian Society for Music Education.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). The support of autonomy and the control of behaviour. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(6), 1024-1037.

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience And Education. New York: Touchstone.

Dill Bruenger, S. (2009). School-wide goal environment and continuing motivation in music. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 27(2), 3-11. doi: 10.1177/8755123308330043

Driscoll, J. (2009). 'If I play my sax my parents are nice to me': opportunity and motivation in musical instrument and singing tuition. Music Education Research, 11(1), 37 - 55. doi: 10.1080/14613800802547722

Du Plessis, J. (2009). Instructional objectives : the journey versus the destiny perspective. Perspectives in Education, 27(3), 258-266.

Eccles, J. S. (1982). Children's motivation to study music Motivation and Creativity: Documentary Report on the Ann Arbor Symposium on the Application of Psychology to the Teaching and Learning of Music; Session III. (pp. 31-38). Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference.

Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Midgley, C., Reuman, D., Iver, D. M., & Feldlaufer, H. (1993). Negative effects of traditional middle schools on students' motivation. The Elementary School Journal, 93(5), 553-574.

Evans, P. A. (2009). Psychological needs and social-cognitive influences on participation in music activities.PhD Dissertation, Graduate College, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana-Champaign, IL. (AAT 3362780)

Fabiansson, C. (2006). Being young in rural settings: Young people's everyday community affiliations and trepidations. Rural Society, 16(1), 46-59.

Faulkner, R., Davidson, J. W., & McPherson, G. E. (2010). The value of data mining in music education research and some findings from its application to a study of instrumental learning during childhood. International Journal of Music Education, 28(3), 212-230. doi: 10.1177/0255761410371048

Ferm, C. (2004). Öppenhet och medvetenhet: en fenomenologisk studie av musikdidaktisk interaktion / Openness and awareness - a phenomenological study of music teaching and learning interaction.Doktorsavhandling / Doctoral Dissertation, Musikhögskolan i Piteå / School of Music in Piteå, Luleå tekniska universitet / Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden. Retrieved from LULEÅ UNIVERSITETSBIBLIOTEK database.

Frydenberg, E., Ainley, M., & Russell, V. J. (2005). Student motivation and engagement, 2005(2). Schooling Issues Digest. Retrieved October 11th, 2010, from

Fullarton, S. (2002). "Student engagement with school : Individual and school-level influences". LSAY Research Reports. Longitudinal surveys of Australian youth research report ; n.27. Retrieved September 27th, 2010, from

Ghazali, G. M., & McPherson, G. E. (2009). Malaysian children's attitudes towards learning music. Music Education Research, 11(2), 193-219. doi: 10.1080/14613800902924474

Giles, D. L. (2008). Exploring the teacher-student relationship in teacher education: a hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand. Retrieved from ScholarlyCommons@AUT - Putunga Rangahau database.

Gilman, R. (2001). The relationship between life satisfaction, social interest, and frequency of extracurricular activities among adolescent students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(6), 749-767. doi: 10.1023/A:1012285729701

Hallam, S. (2002). Musical motivation: Towards a model synthesising the research. Music Education Research, 4(2), 225 - 244. doi: 10.1080/1461380022000011939

Harris, A., Wyn, J., & Younes, S. (2010). Beyond apathetic or activist youth: 'Ordinary' young people and contemporary forms of participation. Young: Nordic Journal of Youth Research, 18(1), 9-32. doi: 10.1177/110330880901800103

Harrison, C. S., Asmus, E. P., & Serpe, R. T. (1994). Effects of Musical Aptitude, Academic Ability, Music Experience, and Motivation on Aural Skills. Journal of Research in Music Education, 42(2), 131-144. doi: 10.2307/3345497

Hidi, S., & Ainley, M. (2002). Interest and adolescence. In F. Pajares & T. C. Urdan (Eds.), Academic motivation of adolescents(Vol. II, pp. 247-276). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

hooks, b. (1994). Teaching to transgress: Education as the practice of freedom. New York: Routledge.

Jorgensen, E. R. (2008). Questions for music education research. Music Education Research, 10(3), 331 - 346. doi: 10.1080/14613800802280050

Juvonen, J., & Cadigan, R. J. (2002). Social determinants of public behavior of middle school youth: Perceived peer norms and need to be accepted. In F. Pajares & T. C. Urdan (Eds.), Academic motivation of adolescents (Vol. II, pp. 277-298). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Klonowski, C. T. (2009). Factors affecting student motivation related to enrollment and retention in music and performing ensembles outside of the school environment.Master of Music Thesis, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH. Retrieved from Cleveland State University / OhioLINK database. (csu1263754390)

Kokotsaki, D., & Hallam, S. (2007). Higher education music students' perceptions of the benefits of participative music making. Music Education Research, 9(1), 93 - 109. doi: 10.1080/14613800601127577

La Guardia, J. G., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). What adolescents need: A self-determination theory perspective on development within families, school and society. In F. Pajares & T. C. Urdan (Eds.), Academic motivation of adolescents(Vol. II, pp. 193-220). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Lens, W., Simons, J., & Dewitte, S. (2002). From duty to desire: The role of students' future time perspective and instrumentality perceptions for study motivation and self-regulation. In F. Pajares & T. C. Urdan (Eds.), Academic motivation of adolescents(Vol. II, pp. 221-246). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Lowe, G. M. (2008). This task is reallly boring: Examining the impact of class music learning activities upon Year 8 music student values. In J. E. Southcott (Ed.), Proceedings of the XXX Annual Conference: Innovation and Tradition; Music Education Research(pp. 184-193). Melbourne: Australian and New Zealand Association for Research in Music Education.

Lowe, G. M. (2010). In their voice: Lower secondary school students' beliefs about playing musical instruments, and the impact of the instrument lesson upon those beliefs. Australian Journal of Music Education, 2010(2), 41-51.

Lowe, G. M., & Belcher, S. (2012). Direct instruction and music literacy: one approach to augmenting the diminishing? Australian Journal of Music Education, 2012(1), 3-13.

Madsen, C. K. (2003). Pedagogy Saturday VII - The magic of motivation: Practical implications from research. American Music Teacher, 53(2), 22-27.

Madsen, C. K., & Kelly, S. N. (2002). First remembrances of wanting to become a music teacher. Journal of Research in Music Education, 50(4), 323-332. doi: 10.2307/3345358

Maehr, M. L., Pintrich, P. R., & Linnenbrink, E. A. (2002). Motivation and Achievement. In R. Colwell & C. P. Richardson (Eds.), The new handbook of research on music teaching and learning : a project of the Music Educators National Conference([New] ed., pp. 348-372). New York: Oxford University Press.

Manturzewska, M. (1990). A Biographical Study of the Life-Span Development of Professional Musicians. Psychology of Music, 18(2), 112-139. doi: 10.1177/0305735690182002

Marjoribanks, K., & Mboya, M. (2004). Learning Environments, Goal Orientations, and Interest in Music. Journal of Research in Music Education, 52(2), 155-166. doi: 10.2307/3345437

McGregor, G., & Mills, M. (2006). Boys and music education: RMXing the curriculum. Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 14(2), 221 - 233. doi: 10.1080/14681360600738350

Martin, A. J. (2008). Motivation and engagement in music and sport: Testing a multidimensional framework in diverse performance settings. Journal of Personality, 76(1), 135-170. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2007.00482.x

Martin, A. J. (2008). How domain specific is motivation and engagement across school, sport, and music? A substantive-methodological synergy assessing young sportspeople and musicians. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 785-813. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.01.002

Matthews, W. K., & Kitsantas, A. (2007). Group Cohesion, Collective Efficacy, and Motivational Climate as Predictors of Conductor Support in Music Ensembles. Journal of Research in Music Education, 55(1), 6-17. doi: 10.1177/002242940705500102

McEwan, R. (2008). Peer group influences on student motivation to participate in elective classroom music. Australian Journal of Middle Schooling, 8(2), 17-20.

McPherson, G. E. (1989). Cognitive meditational processes and positive motivation: Implications of educational research for music teaching and learning. Australian Journal of Music Education, 1989(1), 3-19.

McPherson, G. E. (2000). Commitment and practice: Key ingredients for achievement during the early stages of learning a musical instrument. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 2000(147), 122-127.

McPherson, G. E. (2007). Children's Motivation to Study Music in Schools. Music Forum, 14(1), 31-33, 37.

McPherson, G. E. (2007). Children's Motivation to Study Music in Schools. In A. Stanberg, J. McIntosh & R. Faulkner (Eds.), Celebrating Musical Communities: Proceedings of the 40th Anniversary National Conference, Perth, WA, Australia, July 6th-8th(pp. 21-25). Nedlands, WA: Australian Society for Music Education.

McPherson, G. E., & Hendricks, K. S. (2010). Students' motivation to study music: The United States of America. Research Studies in Music Education, 32(2), 201-213. doi: 10.1177/1321103x10384200

McPherson, G. E., & O'Neill, S. A. (2010). Students' motivation to study music as compared to other school subjects: A comparison of eight countries. Research Studies in Music Education, 32(2), 101-137. doi: 10.1177/1321103x10384202

Nash, R. (1990). Bourdieu on Education and Social and Cultural Reproduction. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 11(4), 431-447. doi: 10.1080/0142569900110405

Pajares, F., & Urdan, T. C. (Eds.). (2002). Academic motivation of adolescents(Vol. II). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Patterson, J. (2008). Why choose music? A study in parental motivation toward formal music learning and the cultural beliefs regarding its benefits.Bachelor of Music (Music Education) (Honours) Thesis, Sydney Conservatorium of Music, The University of Sydney, Sydney, N.S.W. Retrieved from Sydney eScholarship Repository database.

Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A Motivational Science Perspective on the Role of Student Motivation in Learning and Teaching Contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 667-686. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.95.4.667

Pitts, S. E. (2007). Anything goes: A case study of extra-curricular musical participation in an English secondary school. Music Education Research, 9(1), 145 - 165. doi: 10.1080/14613800601127627

Pitts, S. E., Davidson, J. W., & McPherson, G. E. (2000). Models of success and failure in instrumental learning: Case studies of young players in the first 20 months of learning. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 2000(146), 51-69.

Pitts, S. E., Robinson, K., & Goh, K. (2015). Not playing any more: A qualitative investigation of why amateur musicians cease or continue membership of performing ensembles. International Journal of Community Music, 8(3), 129-147. doi: 10.1386/ijcm.8.2.129_1

Plummeridge, C. (1997). The rights and wrongs of school music: a brief comment on Malcolm Ross's paper. British Journal of Music Education, 14(1), 23-27. doi: 10.1017/S0265051700003417

Powell, L. (1984). Pieces to the Motivation Puzzle. Music Educators Journal, 70(6), 31-32. doi: 10.2307/3400788

Prickett, C. A. (2003). Is there musical life after graduation? Mining the resources of an understudied population. Research Studies in Music Education, 21(1), 58-71. doi: 10.1177/1321103x030210010501

Renwick, J. M. (2008). Because I love playing my instrument: Young musicians' internalised motivation and self-regulated practising behaviour.PhD Thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney, N.S.W. Retrieved from UNSWorks database.

Renwick, J. M., & McPherson, G. E. (2002). Interest and choice: student-selected repertoire and its effect on practising behaviour. British Journal of Music Education, 19(02), 173-188. doi: 10.1017/S0265051702000256

Rosevear, J. C. (2008). Engaging adolescents in high school music. PhD Thesis, Elder Conservatorium of Music, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, S.A. Retrieved from Adelaide Research and Scholarship database.

Ross, A. (2009). Disengagement from education among 14-16 year olds [Research report ; DCSF-RR178]. Annesley?: Department for Children, Schools and Families.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54-67. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1999.1020

Schmidt, C. P. (2005). Relations among Motivation, Performance Achievement, and Music Experience Variables in Secondary Instrumental Music Students. Journal of Research in Music Education, 53(2), 134-147. doi: 10.1177/002242940505300204

Schunk, D. H., & Miller, S. D. (2002). Self-efficacy and adolescents' motivation. In F. Pajares & T. C. Urdan (Eds.), Academic motivation of adolescents (Vol. II, pp. 29-52). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Shernoff, D. J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Schneider, B., & Shernoff, E. S. (2003). Student engagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of flow theory. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(2), 158-176. doi: 10.1521/scpq.

Shernoff, D. J., & Vandell, D. (2007). Engagement in after-school program activities: quality of experience from the perspective of participants. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(7), 891-903. doi: 10.1007/s10964-007-9183-5

Sichivitsa, V. O. (2007). The influences of parents, teachers, peers and other factors on students' motivation in music. Research Studies in Music Education, 29(1), 55-68. doi: 10.1177/1321103x07087568

Silverman, M. D. (2005). Community music? Reflections on the concept. International Journal of Community Music, C(2005)Retrieved June 21st, 2008, from

Sloboda, J. A. (1999). Music - where cognition and emotion meet. The Psychologist, 12(9), 450-455.

Sloboda, J. A. (2000). Individual differences in music performance. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(10), 397-403. doi: 10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01531-X

Smithrim, K., & Upitis, R. (2005). Learning through the arts: lessons of engagement. Canadian Journal of Education, 28(1-2), 109-127.

Snead, T. E. (2009). Dichotomous musical worlds: Interactions between the musical lives of adolescents and school music-learning culture. PhD Dissertation, Department of Middle-Secondary Education and Instructional Technology, College of Education, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA. Retrieved from Digital Archive @ GSU | Georgia State University Research database. (Paper 53)

Stoeber, J., & Eismann, U. (2007). Perfectionism in young musicians: Relations with motivation, effort, achievement, and distress. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(8), 2182-2192. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.06.036

Tajfel, H., Billig, M. G., Bundy, R. P., & Flament, C. (1971). Social categorization and intergroup behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1(2), 149-178. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2420010202

Temmerman, N. (2004). Home, school community and their role in the provision of music education. In M. Chaseling (Ed.), Australian Association for Research in Music Education: Proceedings of the XXVIth Annual Conference, 25th - 28th September 2004, Southern Cross University, Tweed-Gold Coast Campus, Tweed Heads. (pp. 329-340). Melbourne: Australian Assciation for Research in Music Education.

Tomlinson, M. M. (2010). Cassie: A gifted musician. Socio-cultural and educational perspectivies related to the development of musical understanding in gifted adolescents. Australian Journal of Music Education, 2010(2), 87-101.

Trehub, S. E. (2003). The developmental origins of musicality. Nature Neuroscience, 6(7), 669-673.

Turner, J. C. (1975). Social comparison and social identity: Some prospects for intergroup behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology, 5(1), 1-34. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2420050102

Walker, D., & Kelly, M. (2002). The art and craft of motivating students. Secondary EducationRetrieved September 6th, 2010, from

Walker, G. (2004). Middle school student motivation : Implications for curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. Australian Journal of Middle Schooling, 4(1), 22-29.

Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., & Rodriguez, D. (1998). Chapter 3: The Development of Children's Motivation in School Contexts. Review of Research in Education, 23(1), 73-118. doi: 10.3102/0091732x023001073

Yonezawa, S., Jones, M., & Joselowsky, F. (2009). Youth engagement in high schools: Developing a multidimensional, critical approach to improving engagement for all students. Journal of Educational Change, 10(2), 191-209. doi: 10.1007/s10833-009-9106-1